The medical world can be a confusing place. Patients and their families might feel overwhelmed by the large vocabularies and complicated explanations they get from their health care providers. Students entering health care also struggle to grasp the complexity of health sciences, and are forced to memorize huge amounts of information. We hope to make understanding the medical world a bit easier. Look around! These videos do not provide medical advice and are for informational purposes only. The videos are not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay seeking it because of something you have read or seen in any video.
Coronary artery disease - clogging of the arteries supplying the heart- is the cause of about 30% of all deaths globally, making it the leading cause of death. Stroke is a similarly debilitating condition that results from lack of perfusion to the brain. Unfortunately, patients with heart disease are more likely to suffer from heart disease and vice versa. You will come to an understanding of the pathophysiology behind these common diseases and how they relate to one another.
With a name that derives from the Greek word for “thin,” the leptin hormone regulates the amount of fat stored in the body by controlling the feeling of hunger. It was discovered in 1994, with high hopes that it would provide a groundbreaking treatment for a growing national epidemic of obesity. After an extensive clinical trial, those hopes were dashed.
Everyday we come into contact with thousands of bacterial cells. We are colonized with lots of different types of bacteria which live on us, and inside of us; everywhere from the grooves of your fingerprint, to the nooks and crannies of your intestines. If you count up all of the bacteria, they actually outnumber us (by "us" we mean our human cells) about 10 to 1. To stay healthy, we need to maintain a healthy ecosystem of bacteria, called normal flora (not all bacteria is bad!), while selectively getting rid of the harmful, “pathogenic” bacteria which can cause an infection.
When bacterial cells replicate, there is a small chance the new bacterial cell will not be exactly the same as the original bacterial cell. We call these errors in the copied cell a mutation. In one bacterial cell, the cell wall could be slightly different, in another an enzyme works poorly, and so on. Mutations are key to the idea of evolution, and all of the diversity you can see in nature came from a series of many mutations over hundreds of thousands of years. In animals, it can take centuries or millennia for a species to adopt a mutation which helps it survive (and sometimes these mutations create entirely new species). It takes this long in animals because it takes years for most animals to grow up and reproduce.
Ebola disease is a life-threatening illness caused by the Ebola virus. In December 2013, a 2-year-old toddler died in a rural village in Guinea, sparking the largest Ebola outbreak the world has ever known (Baize et al., 2014). The outbreak primarily involves three countries in Western Africa: Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone (although there have been additional cases/deaths in other countries). As of early November 2014, there have been over 13,000 cases and almost 5,000 deaths, although experts believe that these numbers could be 250% greater as many patients never seek medical assistance. This outbreak is larger than all previous Ebola outbreaks combined, and the Center for Disease Control (CDC) predicts the disease could spread to other West African countries, infecting over 1 million people by January 2015 (Meltzer et al., 2014)!
To understand the critical importance of the heart requires taking a step back so we understand the needs of each cell in our body. Remember that our body is composed of over 10 trillion cells that work together in remarkable unity (a lesson in good governance!).